Executive Summary We fight as one team with our joint, interagency, and multinational partners.
U.S. Army FM 3-01.7 Air Defense Artillery Brigade Operations Field Manual on CD-ROM
These are not just words or a slogan; we depend on each other to succeed in today s complex security environment. This is de facto interdependence: the dependence on access to each other s capabilities to succeed in assigned tasks. Interdependence is much more than HANDCON, an often quoted term Interdependent Operations; A better fight as a joint team Joint Force Commander Land SOF Warfighting Imperatives: Fully integrated both military and other interagency players Components meet needs of Joint Force Commander and designated components expressing the decision on the part of subordinates to voluntarily work together absent direction by their higher commander.
Interdependence is commander driven; it is directed in guidance and intent, and implemented in orders. This is accomplished through the deliberate assignment of supported and supporting command relationships that are combined with clear battlespace geometry, delegated authorities, and the fixing of responsibilities to best combine capabilities of the joint force.
This interdependence is a quantum mindset change from a vertical orientation receiving and unilaterally accomplishing tasks directed by the higher commander to that of working much more closely with your horizontal warfighting partners as depicted by the oval in the above figure.
This interdependence is more than interoperability, i. It is recognition that the Armed Forces fight as one team of joint, interagency, and multinational partners and depend on access to each other s capabilities to succeed. Within our military, we live joint interdependence daily. The joint force commander JFC deliberately crafts the task organization and command relationships shaping a command environment in which the components must work together, supporting each other in an atmosphere of trust and confidence to accomplish the mission.
Key Insights: - Personal relationships and mutual trust and confidence remain the critical prerequisite to the concept of interdependence. Army Service Component , functional components e. As a JTF, you will often be designated a supported command; these lateral commands may be designated a supporting command to you. We often see confusion between the joint task force and other Combatant Command forces operating within the JOA when these supported and supporting command relationships are not clear.
Air Maritime 1. Specify the supported commander for specific tasks together with who are supporting commanders, realizing that there will be multiple, concurrent supported and supporting commanders due to the number of ongoing tasks. Provide clear priorities to allow subordinates to allocate efforts to the various tasks. These include both the battlespace owners BSOs and those functional task force commanders who operate across AOs throughout the joint operations area conducting specific mission sets e. Ensure battlespace owners understand functional task force responsibilities in accomplishing their respective missions across AO boundaries.
Direct functional task force commanders and subordinates to conduct the necessary coordination with BSOs and keep them apprised of all activities within their AO. The commander or individual has the authority to require consultation between the agencies involved, but does not have the authority to compel agreement. In the event that essential agreement cannot be obtained, the matter shall be referred to the appointing authority. Coordinating authority is a consultation relationship, not an authority through which command may be exercised.
Coordinating authority is more applicable to planning and similar activities than to operations. JTF Organization Four key insights in JTF task organization: - Coherently develop your task organization, command relationships discussed in later section , and battlespace geometry discussed in later section as part of your concept of operations. Clear designation of battlespace owners BSO. Our joint commanders still primarily organize to fight along a geographic orientation. At the combatant command level, we re seeing the continued formation of geographically oriented JTFs with assigned joint operations areas JOAs e.
We discuss how the joint force commander retains agility of the force while promoting interdependence amongst the battlespace owners and these functional task forces in succeeding sections on battlespace geometry and command relationships. We normally see dual hatting at the JTF level for simplicity and savings in personnel. Battlespace Geometry As noted earlier, we see joint commanders laying out their battlespace in terms of areas of operation AOs , and then designating battlespace owners BSOs for the various AOs.
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They then empower these battlespace owners with the requisite authority commensurate with their responsibilities as battlespace owners. Insights: Delineate AOs within the battlespace together with clearly outlined command relationships, mission approval levels, and coordinating authorities. This allows agility of operations. We re seeing less reliance on boundaries as the only means to control the fight. Today s battlespace is very complex.
Many joint players e. SOF, Airpower, engineers operate in the battlespace owners areas of operation. The battlespace owners need the support of these other players e. Likewise, functional task forces normally need the support of battlespace owners e.
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Battlespace owners are becoming increasingly more comfortable with these non-assigned players in their battlespace. They recognize that these players are part of the team, are keeping them better informed of planned activities, and accomplishing important tasks in pursuit of overall mission accomplishment.
Non-coalition players e. Host Nation agencies, NGOs, and other military forces may not recognize nor heed this military control measure. Military forces operating in another sovereign country must also account for the realities of host nation sovereignty in terms of limits to their actions and in achieving full situational awareness in their AO. Boundaries are potential seams not only in understanding the adversary and local population, but also in coherently working with our partners the host nation, local governments, and other agencies.
In developing their boundaries, commanders and staff should analyze social, physical, and adversary aspects together with political and other agency boundaries to minimize these seams. Commanders mitigate seams through proactive cross boundary information sharing and coordination. Habur Gate Tigris R. BSOs are largely responsible for everything that happens within their assigned area of operation.
A best practice is for the JTF commander or higher commander to provide coordinating authority 3 to BSOs for all military actions occurring within their battlespace. This requires other units to coordinate their planned and current activities with the BSO. Situational Awareness.
One continuing challenge in today s complex operational environment is the potential for other players i. We ve heard several joint commanders and subordinates emphasize the need for these other players to keep the battlespace owner informed. This is why providing coordinating authority to BSOs is so important. This paper does not fully address FSCMs except to note that the new concept of Joint Fires Areas 4 JFAs may improve the overall efficiency of joint fires and reduce the risk of fratricide by reducing the time required for coordination, integration, and deconfliction of joint fires.
Established and adjusted by the delegated component commander in consultation with supported, supporting, subordinate, and affected commanders. Command relationships We ve seen joint commanders spending a lot of time ensuring they craft the right command relationships upfront to engender an interdependent, one team one fight attitude. As addressed earlier, interdependence is commander driven; it is the deliberate assignment of supported and supporting command relationships combined with clear battlespace geometry, delegated authorities, and fixing of responsibilities to best integrate the capabilities of the joint force.
It provides the Authority authority and basis for interdependence, Support and is often the most appropriate in Supporting Supported today s complex operational environment. Commander Commander This support relationship in essence makes the supporting commanders responsible for the success of the supported commander. They can t simply provide some forces and walk away from the challenge. Rather, in consonance with the joint force commander s guidance and intent, it requires them to stay involved with the supported commander and continue to aid and assist him as he conducts operations.
He defines the support command relationships among his subordinates in terms of who is supported and supporting for a specific mission. He also defines the relative degree of authority and priority the supported commander has in the pursuit of his mission especially where there are limited resources supporting numerous operations.
SOF and Air are good examples of some limited resources. The establishing authority is also the referee, the tie breaker, when subordinates cannot work out the necessary balance of access to capabilities. Some establishing authority best practices: - Give clear direction to subordinates in terms of priorities and intent to allow subordinates to work horizontally with each other in accomplishing tasks. This crosstalk amongst your components will allow them to arrive at the optimal allocation of capabilities to accomplish both their assigned tasks and support the designated supported commanders.
The supported commander is given access to supporting capabilities and has the authority to provide general direction, designate and prioritize missions, targets, or objectives, and other actions for coordination and efficiency to include requesting liaison and directing of reporting requirements. This is a continuing, not one time, activity. The supporting commander is responsible to both ascertain and satisfy the needs of the supported commander within the priorities directed by the establishing authorities.
Some supporting commander best practices: - Recognize your role in ensuring the success of the supported commander. We see those believing and following through on the one team one fight view set the conditions for success. Send liaison to supported commanders to assist them in planning and in ascertaining your requirements.
Direct appropriate command relationships to your subordinates to ensure you and your subordinates fulfill your supporting responsibilities. You, as the supporting commander, can provide forces or capabilities in a direct support or even TACON relationship to a respective supported commander to ensure his success. As a JTF, you will normally be designated a supported command for operations in your JOA; these lateral commands will likely have a supporting command relationship to you.
In some cases, you may have mutually supporting missions and a mutual support command relationship. We often see confusion between the joint task force and other Combatant Command forces operating within the JOA if these supported and supporting command relationships are not clear.
For example as depicted in the figure, a Battlespace owner may be the supported commander for stability operations with SOF supporting him, while he is concurrently supporting discrete SOF high value target HVT missions in his AO. Provide clear priorities to allow subordinates to allocate their efforts to the various tasks. The supporting commander is responsible for employment of his forces and the risk decisions on employment of the force often known as risk to the force.
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